Sea Surface Temperature (L4, G1SST)
Temporal coverage: 21 June 2010 - 08 December 2019
29 January 2020 Notice: The GHRSST Sea Surface Temperature (L4, G1SST) has been producing poor quality SST results since 9 December 2019. The imagery has been removed from 9 December 2019 to present. We advise users to consider using the GHRSST Sea Surface Temperature (L4, MUR) layer, which provides comparable data at the same spatial sampling and coverage as G1SST.
Read more about the data outage (29 January 2020).
The GHRSST Sea Surface Temperature Level 4, G1SST sea surface temperature analysis product is created using a multi-scale two-dimensional variational (MS-2DVAR) blending algorithm on a global 0.009 degree grid. The Global 1 km SST (G1SST) analysis uses satellite data from sensors that include the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSRE), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TMI), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager, the Multi-Functional Transport Satellite 1R (MTSAT-1R) radiometer, and in situ data from drifting and moored buoys.
The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) layers are the “skin sea surface temperature” at approximately 10-20 µm depth in Celsius (°C). Changes in sea surface temperature have an impact on weather, oceanic and atmospheric current patterns, affects ocean ecology and even life on land. Sea surface temperatures are normally warmer near the equator and cooler near the poles, but ocean currents move warm and cold water around the Earth’s oceans. When these currents flow near the surface, they are typically visible in the sea surface imagery if not obscured by clouds. El Niño is an example of how changes in sea surface temperature affect weather around the world. El Niño occurs every 3 – 7 years and causes a wide swath of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean around the equator to warm 2 – 3 °C (or even more during intense El Nino events). This anomalous warming in turn changes weather patterns around the world. For example, increased precipitation typically occurs in the southern United States, and severe drought is found in Australia, Indonesia, and southern Asia during these periods. Other examples of SST effects on weather include the ocean temperature influence on the development of tropical cyclones like hurricanes and typhoons. Tropical cyclones are dependent on warm SST from which they draw heat and energy to form and intensify.
The imagery resolution is 1 km, and the temporal resolution is daily.